The focus of this research is on upgrading the level of energy efficiency of primary and secondary school buildings in the Netherlands. The aim of this research is to investigate which energy efficient technologies are technically applicable in school buildings and what are the school building user preferences for these technologies.
In the literature study, several energy efficient technologies are investigated based on the NZEB requirements. These energy efficient technologies can (1) reduce the energy consumption, (2) improve the level of energy efficiency and (3) increase the share of renewable energy. Moreover, considering the abolishment of the net metering scheme, technologies for energy storage are also taken into consideration.
The energy consumption pattern of ten school buildings is described. The ten school buildings are both primary and secondary school buildings. Influencing factors on the energy pattern are identified based on the energy use pattern which are the outdoor temperature, the amount of pupils, the application of solar panels and the implementation of a cooling system.
Thereafter, a panel data regression analysis is conducted on the energy consumption data of the ten schools. The results of this analysis show that the most influencing factors are the education time and the EPC value. In this analysis, some contradictions are shown, probably caused by one of the school buildings. Besides, this analysis includes a small sample size of only ten school buildings.
Finally, the school building user preferences are investigated with a stated choice experiment. The data is collected among teachers of primary and secondary schools, and pupils of secondary schools. The 376 valid respondents were presented 12 choice sets each. Mixed logit modeling is applied for model estimation. The results indicate that, for both pupils and teachers, the ventilation system is the most influencing factor on the choice of a class room. For heating and ventilation, the energy efficient system is chosen above the conventional system. For lighting system and sun blinds, both the pupils and teachers prefer the conventional system above the energy efficient system. For PV panels, the teachers prefer to have PV panels while pupils prefer not as the class temperature may be lower. Based on the results in this questionnaire, it can be concluded that teachers are more energy conscious than pupils.