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Creating a Social Cost-Benefit Analysis Decision Support System to optimize the replacement of public lighting



Last Updated: 5-2022


In this thesis, a Decision Support System3 (DSS) is developed to investigate under which
circumstances (intelligent) Light Emitting Diode (LED) public lighting can replace (not yet)
depreciated public lighting according to a Dutch governmental format Social Cost-Benefit
Analysis (SCBA). Included in the DSS are relevant costs and monetizable effects for public
lighting. It answers the question of under which circumstances (intelligent) Light Emitting
Diode (LED) public lighting can replace (not yet) depreciated public lighting, by maximizing
lighting systems Net Present Value (NPV) under various circumstances and, therefore,
recommend the type of lighting systems (poles, fixture, light source, dimming type), maintenance
schedules, and placement dates to use. The NPV is the current value of a future
expense/revenue. The alternative with the highest NPV is the best alternative according to a
The DSS was tested for a set of circumstances in a case study. In the case study, three
areas in the municipality of Nuenen with different types of not yet depreciated lighting systems
(High Pressure Sodium (HPS), Low Pressure Sodium (LPS), and LED) were tested. For
none of the areas included did intelligent LED public lighting have the highest NPV. The fact
that intelligent LED lighting is not the best lighting option is probably the case because most
effects in the SCBA are not dependent on lighting and intelligent dimming does likely affects
the associated effects positively.
To resolve the issue of the exclusion of light dependence for these effects, additional research
into (quantifying and monetizing) the effects of public lighting is needed. This research
should also cover the effects of different spectra and intensities of light. Furthermore,
for creating a reliable SCBA risk analysis, it is of importance to also investigate the probability
densities of these effects and their sensitivity to macroeconomic developments. Meanwhile,
it is recommended for road authorities to place intelligent LED lighting if this reduces the
amount of light emitted since for intelligent dimming no negative effects were found and
the cost increase is two orders of magnitude smaller than the monetized negative effects for
Artificial Light At Night (ALAN).

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